Cardiology notes

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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMHeart rate• Normal range is 60-100 beats per minute• Tachycardia is greater than 100 bpm• Bradycardia is less than 60 bpm• Sympathetic system INCREASES HR• Parasympathetic system (Vagus) DECREASES HR• The vascular system consists of the arteries, veins and capillaries• The arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the periphery• The veins are the vessels that carry blood to the heart• The capillaries are lined with squamous cells, they connect the veins and arteriesLABORATORY PROCEDURESCARDIAC Proteins and enzymes••CK- MB ( creatine kinase)Elevates in MI within 4 hours, peaks in 18 hours and then declinesCARDIAC Proteins and enzymes••••••••CK- MB ( creatine kinase)Normal value is 0-7 U/LLactic Dehydrogenase (LDH)Elevates in MI in 24 hours, peaks in 48-72 hoursNormally LDH1 is greater than LDH2Lactic Dehydrogenase (LDH)MI- LDH2 greater than LDH1 (flipped LDH pattern)Normal value is 70-200 IU/LMyoglobin•••••Rises within 1-3 hoursPeaks in 4-12 hoursReturns to normal in a dayNot used aloneMuscular and RENAL disease can have elevated myoglobinTroponin I and T•••Troponin I is usually utilized for MIElevates within 3-4 hours, peaks in 4-24 hours and persists for 7 days to 3 weeks!Normal value for Troponin I is less than 0.6 ng/mLREMEMBER to AVOID IM injections before obtaining blood sample!Early and late diagnosis can be made … Purchase document to see full attachment

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