Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal Final Paper
For this assignment, you will synthesize the independent evidence-based practice project proposal assignments from NUR-550 and NUR-590 into a 4,500-5,000-word professional paper.
The final paper should:
1. Incorporate all necessary revisions and corrections suggested by your instructors.
2. Synthesize the different elements of the overall project into one paper. The synthesis should reflect the main concepts for each section, connect ideas or overreaching concepts, and be rewritten to include the critical aspects (do not copy and paste the assignments).
3. Contain supporting research for the evidence-based practice project proposal.
Main Body of the Paper
The main body of your paper should include the following sections:
1. Problem Statement
2. Organizational Culture and Readiness
3. Literature Review
4. Change Model, or Framework
5. Implementation Plan
6. Evaluation Plan
The appendices at the end of your paper should include the following:
1. All final changes or revisions for the drafts that will be included in the appendices of your paper.
2. Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as the final appendix at the end of your paper. In each preceding course you have been directed to the Student Success Center for assistance with APA style, and have submitted the APA Writing Checklist to help illustrate your adherence to APA style. This final paper should demonstrate a clear ability to communicate your project in a professional and accurately formatted paper using APA style.
You are required to cite 10-12 peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
1) Synthesis Paragraphs are logically sequenced, connect ideas or overreaching concepts, and are rewritten to present a fluid and cohesive paper.
2) Organizational Culture and Readiness Culture, degree of readiness, challenges to implementation, strategies for implementation, stakeholder involvement, communication strategies.
3) Problem Statement (C5.1a)
The problem statement is consistent throughout the paper and concisely describes the issue using strong evidence-based support to rationalize and justify the problem
4 )Literature Review
5) Change Model or Framework
6) Plan includes setting/access to subjects; timeline; budget and resources; research design; methods instruments; process for delivering intervention; stakeholders; barriers and challenges. (C5.1b)
7) Evaluation Plan includes expected outcomes, data collection tools, statistical test, methods applied to data collection tool, strategies for nonpositive outcomes, plans for maintaining, extending, revising and discontinuing proposed solution.
8) Associated Documents and Appendix Appendix includes consent or approval form; timeline; budget and resource list; method or instrument; APA Writing Checklist.
9) Ability to translate research and knowledge to improve patient outcomes and practice (C1.1)
10) Required Sources
11) Thesis Development and Purpose Documentation of Sources Citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style. Documentation of Sources Citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style. Documentation of Sources Citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style.
12) Argument Logic and Construction
13) Mechanics of Writing Includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use.
14) Paper Format Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment.
15) Documentation of Sources Citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Class Resources if you need assistance.
This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:
MBA-MSN; MSN-Nursing Education; MSN Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Adult-Gerontology; MSN Family Nurse Practitioner; MSN-Health Informatics; MSN-Health Care Quality and Patient Safety; MSN-Leadership in Health Care Systems; MSN-Public Health Nursing
1.1: Translate research and knowledge gained from practice, while adhering to ethical research standards, to improve patient outcomes and clinical practice.
5.1: Design ethically sound, evidence-based solutions to complex health care issues related to individuals, populations, and systems of care.
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Benchmark – Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal Final Paper
There are several factors that influence the operations and activities within healthcare organizations. Organizational culture is among the key factors that influence the successful implementation of evidence-based practice projects. This is because the organizational culture guides actions of the healthcare staff as well as the organizational leadership. The proposed EBP project seeks to implement an educational intervention for the healthcare providers in the target long-term care facility in order to reduce the rate of falls among older adults in the facility. Therefore, this paper seeks to assess the organizational culture of the target healthcare facility, the organizational readiness to accept and support the proposed EBP change, barriers, facilitators of the new change, as well as the change model, implementation plan, and evaluation plan that will be used during the implementation of the proposed EBP project.
Falls among older adults and the resulting complications are a common problem. According to Padrón-Monedero et al (2020), the rate of falls among older adults is significantly high as the geriatric population account for 50% of deaths from unintentional injuries. The majority of unintentional injuries among older adults are due to falls. Falls among older adults are associated with injuries such as fractures, pain, disability, functional impairment, poor mental health, and even death (Cameron et al., 2018). Additionally, older adults have a higher mortality rate due to minor injuries, when compared to the general population (Padrón-Monedero et al., 2020). Evidence also indicates that the rate of falls is likely to increase with age due to many factors (Padrón-Monedero et al., 2020). As a person ages, they are likely to have various comorbidities which may need many medications such as sedatives, benzodiazepines, anti-hypertensives, and neuroleptics; these medications are linked to an increased fall rate among older adults. Moreover, older adults suffer from cognitive impairments, which are associated with increased fall rates. Padrón-Monedero et al (2020) further add that old age is associated with frailty and frailty is a major risk factor for falls. This is because as a person becomes frailer, poor mobility predisposes the person to fall, especially if they are still mobilizing. Fall among older adults also leads to low self-esteem, reduced ability to carry out activities of daily living, and reduced independence among older adults (Cameron et al., 2018). This can result in reduced physical functioning and poor mental health among older adults. Therefore, the increased risk factors for falls and the evidence high rate of falls among older adults is a health issue that needs to be addressed in order to implement the appropriate interventions. The target of this study is a long-term facility. Residents in the long-term facilities may have an increased risk of falls due to the unfamiliar environment, especially when they are newly admitted.
Organizational Culture and Readiness
The implementation of evidence-based practices in healthcare organizations is important to facilitate high-quality care. Therefore, healthcare organizations should always consider applying EBP in all healthcare problems to improve health outcomes and care processes. The proposed study aims to implement a regular training program for staff members within long-term facilities to prevent rates of falls among older adults. Evidence indicates that falls are the main threat to the health of older adults and the main cause of injuries and deaths related to injuries (Chen et al., 2021). Falls among older adults result in physical trauma, disability, fractures, and also mental health problems such as anxiety, fear of falls, and depression (Chen et al., 2021). Therefore, the high rates of falls among older adults indicate the need to implement preventative measures. Organizational culture and readiness to implement EBP significantly influence the implementation of EBP projects.
In older adults in long-term care facilities (P), does regular training of staff (I), help lower the rate of falls (O), as compared to no regular staff training (C), according to data obtained over a 6-month timeframe (T)?
Evaluation for organization readiness at the target long-term facility using the readiness assessment tool indicated that the facility is ready for the implementation of EBP. The organizational culture in the facility focuses on supporting high-quality care and personalized care for the residents, including the willingness to utilize EBP to support residents. Moreover, the staff in the facility are ready to take part in the EBP change as they often use the EBP evidence, consult the latest evidence, are willing to take part in training related to EBP, and also advocate for the implementation of EBP and quality improvement projects within the long-term facility. The emphasis on the significance of EBP and the availability of the latest evidence have positively influenced the staff as well as the organizational leadership towards change. As a result, the organizational leadership is ready to allocate resources and funds to the implementation of the proposed EBP project, while the staff is ready to participate in the EBP project. Overall, the organizational leadership and the staff rated that the long-term facility is ready to incorporate EBP and is prepared towards achieving the EBP goals.
The implementation of an EBP project normally encounters many barriers including resistance by staff as well as uncooperative leadership that may not allocate resources to support the implementation of proposed EBP projects. For this project, the staff members reported that they did not have adequate time to participate in the proposed project. This can significantly hinder the effective implementation of the proposed EBP as evidence indicates that resistance by staff is a major barrier to the effective implementation of EBP projects (Mathieson Grande & Luker, 2019). Additionally, the current Covid-19 pandemic can hinder adequate data collection as well as the participation of staff during the project implementation.
Leadership plays an important role in the implementation of EBP projects because of their role in decision-making and allocation of resources during the implementation of EBP programs. For instance, the leadership at the target long-term facility has granted permission to undertake the project and is ready to provide the necessary resources, which is a major step towards the successful implementation of the proposed EBP project. As Mathieson et al (2019) indicate, the availability of the necessary resources and support from the organizational leadership plays a major role in facilitating the successful implementation of EBP projects.
Strategies for Integrating Clinical Inquiry
The evaluation that was performed indicated that the long-term facility is ready and has the ability to implement the proposed EBP project. Therefore, the integration can include building a culture of inquiry among the organizational staff, as well as empowering all the relevant stakeholders to embrace the project and take initiatives. Additionally, the spirit of clinical inquiry will be incorporated by teaching the staff about the EBP basic, encouraging the organizational leadership to support EBP projects, use of change champions and EBP mentors and also developing a culture and believing in the ability of EBP to improve healthcare outcomes (Renolen et al., 2019). Even though the organizational staff may be resistant to effective implementation of the proposed EBP, continuous change in the organization culture, empowering the staff on clinical inquiry, using change champions and continuous training of staff on EBP will sustain the integration of EBP in the long-term facility.
The search process used various strategies to retrieve sources to support the proposed intervention. The CINAHL and PubMed databases were used to conduct the search because they contain peer-reviewed journal articles and many scholarly papers on healthcare issues. The keywords utilized during the search included falls, older adults, risk of falls, falls in older adults and falls in long-term facilities. More than 200 journal articles were retrieved using these keywords. As a result, to narrow down the number of journal articles, search limits were applied. For example, the search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles, free access, and full-text journal articles published within the past 5 years. After applying the search limit, a total of 20 articles were obtained. However, most of the articles were ruled out as they were not relevant to the PICOT. Accordingly, only journal articles that directly answered the PICOT question were selected for the literature review. The best and most relevant journal articles were then chosen and integrated into the literature.
Summary of the Evidence
According to Thies et al (2020), injuries related to falls among the geriatric population are a major health problem globally. Approximately 40 percent of older adults experience a fall once per year while living in their homes while the fall rates are higher in nursing care facilities. Falls are associated with injuries such as fractures and other adverse effects like loss of independence, reduced quality of life, poor mental health, and increased healthcare costs.
According to Thies et al (2020), older adults in long-term facilities struggle with disorientation and confusion and have a higher likelihood of stumbling on unfamiliar items on the pathway, and are less likely to access personal support devices like eyeglasses and walking sticks. This is attributable to the unfamiliar environment that the residents find themselves in once admitted to nursing homes. LeLaurin & Shorr (2019) further add that increased workload, high care demand, as well as inadequate awareness of fall prevention among healthcare providers and patients, are other factors that contribute to an increased rate of falls in long-term care facilities. This, therefore, indicates the need to educate and train healthcare providers about fall prevention strategies.
The health problem of falls among older adults is a global issue. For example, in Australia, approximately 30% of older adults experience at least one serious fall every year (James et al., 2017), while in the US evidence indicates that about 32% of older adults sustain a serious fall every year. Similarly, in Canada, older adults (35%) normally experience at least one fall every year and this is the same case in China (Ye et al., 2019). These findings indicate the high incidence of falls among older adults and the importance of implementing interventions to address the issue comprehensively.
A study conducted by Chacko, Thangaraj & Muhammad (2017) indicated that the incidence of falls rises with age and the most common resulting injuries from falls are fractures. Statistics indicate that more than 300,000 nursing home admissions within the US are a result of falls and consequent injuries and disabilities (CDC, 2017). The aging process among older adults significantly contributes to the high incidence of falls among older adults. As per the personality theory of development, the main traits of older adults are that they tend to develop irreversible frailty, weakening muscles, painful and weak joints, and poor eyesight; factors that increase their risks of falls (Canada et al., 2020). Additionally, cognitive changes like memory loss, confusion, and disorientation significantly contribute to the increased risk for falls among older adults.
Iowa will be used to implement the proposed EBP program because the model translates evidence and research findings into clinical practice using structured steps. The first step of the Iowa model involves includes recognizing the problem-focused trigger that needs to be addressed using an EBP change (Chiwaula et al., 2021). The next step is about determining if the identified problem should be a priority for the organization and then the subsequent step involves forming a team consisting of people who will develop, assess and implement the proposed change. This is followed by gathering the appropriate and relevant evidence allied to the desired practice change. The next step is to formulate a good PICOT question that will be used to conduct a literature search to locate sources relevant to the PICOT question (Duff, Cullen, Hanrahan & Steelman, 2020). The retrieved evidence is then critiqued and synthesized to be used in practice. This involves the team critiquing the evidence in order to identify the most relevant evidence to the identified health problem. It is important for the team to determine if the evidence is adequate, relevant, and viable to support the successful implementation of the proposed practice change. If the retrieved evidence meets the set criteria, the next step involves piloting the intervention to evaluate the viability of the proposed EBP change (Chiwaula et al., 2021). If the evidence is not adequate to support the proposed change, an actual research study may be performed. After the pilot study, the team then ensures that the change is relevant and suitable to be implemented and adopted into practice. The change is then initiated and adopted into practice (Chiwaula et al., 2021). After the change is implemented, it is then evaluated to determine if the set objectives were met and whether the change has been effective in addressing the target health problem.
Application to Proposed EBP Proposal
The Iowa model of implementing EBP changes was selected to implement the proposed EBP change as it helps to organize practice changes and also offers a step-by-step procedure on the implementation of a change. Therefore, at first, a problem-focused trigger will be identified in the long-term care facility, which will include the fall rate among the older adults in the facility. A qualitative survey will also be conducted in the facility in order to identify the priority issues in the organization. Since the evidence indicates that the fall rate among older adults is high and has a significant adverse effect, that fall in the facility will likely be determined as a priority for the organization. A team will then be formed to assist in developing, evaluating, and implementing the proposed EBP change. The team will include multi-disciplinary members with skills and knowledge regarding fall management. Therefore, the team members will include the project leader, nurse manager, nurse practitioner, project advisor, nurses, and pharmacists. The project leader and project advisor will be responsible for leading the project, while the project advisor will be responsible for offering advice to the project leader and the project team. The nurse practitioner and nurse manager will also oversee the project activities, including managing the nursing staff during the implementation of the project. The project team will then develop the PICOT question and use the PICOT question to conduct a comprehensive literature search on the study topic. The team will then appraise the retrieved evidence on the efficacy of an education intervention for the staff in the long-term is effective in reducing the fall rate among older adults. The team will determine if the evidence is adequate to support the successful implementation of the EBP change. The implementation and adoption of the intervention into a pilot practice change will include submitting the findings from the pilot to the relevant IRB for review. If the change is determined to be appropriate to be adopted into practice, the EBP change will be implemented. Finally, the implemented EBP change will be evaluated to determine if the change was effective in reducing the rate of falls in the facility. The structure process as well as the outcome data will be analyzed and then monitored.
The benefits of using the Iowa model to implement the proposed EBP change are the model is easy and hence understandable for the healthcare providers and widely used in various healthcare organizations. Therefore, the model will be easily appliable to the proposed EBP project and it will also provide appropriate guidelines and steps to be followed during the implementation process.
The proposed EBP project will be implemented in a long-term care facility. Therefore, nurse practitioners, nurses, and nurse leaders will be involved throughout the implementation process. The selected participants will thus be all healthcare providers in the target long-term care facility. A consent form will be prepared before the implementation process and all the staff members taking part in the project will be required to sign the consent forms to show that they willingly agreed to take part in the project’s implementation. The consent form will indicate that participants could leave at will during the implementation process. The consent form will also indicate that the main aim of the study is to reduce the rate of falls in the long-term care facility within 6 months after implementation of the proposed intervention.
The implementation of the proposed EBP will take approximately 8 weeks and various activities will be carried out over the eight weeks. A multidisciplinary team will be formed during the first week while the second week will be used to gather the necessary resources to implement the project, including informing the staff about the proposed education intervention. During weeks three and four, the staff will be trained about fall preventative strategies to ensure they are well equipped with skills and knowledge to prevent falls among older adults in the long-term care facility. During week five, any potential barriers to the implementation of the project will be identified, and change champions engaged to handle such obstacles. The sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks will be spent on the actual implementation of the project and any necessary modifications made.
The successful implementation of the proposed EBP project will depend on the availability of the necessary resources. Human resources will be essential during the implementation. Therefore, human resources will include skilled and competent trainers who will educate, train, and equip the staff with the required skills and knowledge on fall prevention. Nurse practitioners and nurse clinical leaders will be engaged to carry out the training as they have the necessary skills to implement quality improvement programs. Additionally, financial resources will also be needed to finance the project during its implementation. For example, money will be required to buy stationeries and training materials to be used during the implementation process.
Methods and Instruments
Various methods and instruments will be involved in the implementation process. The study will adopt a qualitative research design. A satisfaction survey will be utilized during the implementation process. The satisfaction survey will be used to examine the efficacy of the education intervention to reduce the high rate of falls in the long-term care facility. Additionally, an open-ended questionnaire will be used to collect the necessary data from the study participants. Nurse leaders and practitioners will answer questions on the effectiveness of the implemented intervention to reduce the high rate of falls among older adults in the target long-term care facility. This information will be used to guide the project team when implementing the EBP project.
Intervention Delivery Process
The process of delivering the EBP project will include the project’s team members namely, nurse leaders, nurses, nurse practitioners, and other healthcare providers in the facility. Training will be conducted to equip team members with the required knowledge and skills. Moreover, training the participants to implement the proposed EBP project will facilitate the achieving of the project’s set objectives.
Data Collection Plan
The collection of data will be done in different phases of the implementation process. First, data will be collected before the project is implemented to examine the rate of falls in the long-term care facility. This will provide the baseline data. The second dataset will be collected during the monitoring process to examine if the EBP project is progressing as planned. The last dataset will be collected post-EBP-project. The pre-project evaluation data and post-project data will be compared to examine if the rate falls reduced after the education intervention.
The Management of Barriers, Facilitators, and Challenges
The success of the proposed EBP project will depend on how the challenges, barriers, and facilitators of the project will be managed by the team members. The organizational management is a key facilitator of the project as they will offer any required support. Accordingly, it will be important to establish a good relationship with the management to ensure the success of the project. The key barriers and challenges to the proposed EBP project include resistance by the staff and time limit. Time limitation will be managed by adhering to the set schedule while change champions will be used to persuade the staff to support the proposed project, based on the benefits associated with it.
The feasibility will be useful in assessing the practicability of the proposed EBP project. The costs incurred when implementing the project will be significantly lower in comparison to the expected benefits the project will bring to the residents and the entire long-term care facility. Falls are associated with increased healthcare costs and also insufferable pain. Therefore, the proposed project is feasible.
Evaluation is an important component of an EBP change implementation process because it informs the decision-making process and any necessary modifications to ensure that the findings are reliable and viable to be implemented into practice.
The rationale for Data Collection Methods
As indicated, a survey will be used to collect data during the baseline period (pre-project), during the project, and finally, after the implementation of the project (post-project). This will involve collecting data about the rate of falls among the older adults in the facility before and after the implementation of the project. In this case, the desk-review method will be used whereby data from the existing documents on the rate of falls in the facility will be reviewed. Additionally, a survey will be used to collect data from the nurses in the organization to examine their level of knowledge on fall management. The data will be collected from the nurses using a semi-structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. This will be done before and after the education/training intervention for the nurses. This survey will help assess if nurses will have gained the required knowledge and skills on how to reduce the high rate of falls in the organization. A survey will maintain anonymity and hence the nurses will be more candid when providing their responses, and thus this will increase the reliability and viability of the findings (Gaur et al., 2020). Outcomes from the survey will identify areas that require improvement and hence the outcomes will assist in improving performance in practice. In this EBP project, the data collected will assist to determine the safety and quality of care for the older adults in the long-term care facility since the fall rate is a key indicator of the quality of care (Walsh et al., 2018).
Evaluating Outcome Measures in Attaining Objectives
The aim of the proposed EBP change project is to reduce the fall rate among older adults in the facility and also ensure increased patient safety and high quality of care. Qualitative and quantitative techniques will be used to evaluate the extent of the EBP project achieving the set objectives. This will include comparing the data pre-and post-project implementation. The comparisons will specifically be on the rate of falls and the level of knowledge among the nursing staff pre-and post-project implementation. A reduced fall rate will be an indication that the EBP project will have achieved its objectives and also improved knowledge level among the nursing staff will also be an indication of the EBP’s project effectiveness.
Measuring and Evaluating Outcomes
All measured outcomes and tools used in the EBP project will be evaluated for reliability, validity, and applicability. The statistical test that will be used to determine the validity, reliability, and applicability of the project is a non-parametric method. The major variables that will be tested in the proposed EBP project include the rate of falls, patient safety, and nurse knowledge/competency. After the implementation of the project, it is expected that the rate of falls will reduce, patient safety will improve and nurses’ knowledge and competency on preventing falls will increase. According to Mishra et al (2019), statistical techniques such as the non-parametric method are easier to utilize when analyzing variables. In the proposed EBP, the non-parametric method will be useful in assessing the correlations and confirming the reliability, validity, and applicability of the EBP findings into clinical practice.
Strategies If Outcomes Do Not Provide Positive Results
If the outcomes from the EBP project will not yield the expected outcomes, the specific gap areas will be identified and established if the gaps had a major effect on the findings. The relevant recommendations on how to improve the research will then be made or recommendations to perform further research. This means that the same research can be conducted using different approaches while integrating the suggested recommendations.
The proposed EBP change project involves regular training of staff to help reduce the rate of falls among older adults in a long-term care facility. Evidence indicates that the rate of falls among older adults is high and that falls are associated with increased disability, injuries, and higher mortality rates among older adults. Therefore, it is important to address this health issue. The Iowa model will be used to guide the implementation of the proposed EBP. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the implemented EBP project, the rate of falls in the long-term care facility pre-project and post-project period will be compared. A reduced rate of falls post-project will indicate the efficacy of the project and that the EBP project achieved its objectives. Additionally, increased nursing knowledge and competence regarding fall prevention will also indicate that the EBP project achieved the set goals.
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