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VEHICLE PROPULSION SYSTEMSLECTURE 1Fuel Consumption Prediction Methods 1Desmond AdairMechanical & Aerospace Engineering,School of Engineering & Digital Sciences,Nazarbayev University,Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan.ENERGY DENSITY OF ON-BOARD ENERGY CARRIERSEstimates of the net energy density of several on-board energy carriers.The main point illustrated on the Figure is that with respect to energy density, liquid hydrocarbonsare unquestionably the best fuels for passenger car application.These fuels have several other advantages:• the refueling process is fast (several MW of power), safe, and does not require any expensiveequipment;• their long term storage is possible at relatively low costs; and,• there were and still are large and easily exploitable reserves of crude oil1.1Note that liquid hydrocarbons need not originate from crude oil sources. Many approaches that usefossil (natural gas, coal, etc.) and renewable (bio Diesel, thanol, etc.) primary energy sources areknown with which liquid hydrocarbons can be synthesized.PATHWAYS TO BETTER FUEL ECONOMYAs illustrated on the next Figure there are essentially three possible approaches to reducing the totalenergy consumption of passenger cars:• improve the ”well-to-tank” efficiency by optimizing the upstream processes and by utilizingalternative primary energy sources;• improve the ”tank-to-vehicle” efficiency as discussed below; and,• improve the vehicle-to-miles” effi … Purchase document to see full attachment

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